Barley is encouraged to begin germination to convert its starchy energy store into sugars ready for use. The barley is then ground up and steeped in hot water to extract the sugars. The sugary solution is called wort. Hops are added to the wort and boiled to extract the flavours. The wort is cooled and yeast is added which ferments the sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The resulting liquid is now beer.